Real-time fMRI Neurofeedback

Schematic representation of the real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback experimental procedure.

A) Baseline resting state (RS-pre) scan. B) Functional Localization of the default mode network (DMN) and the central executive network (CEN). C) rt-fMRI feedback process showing the online monitoring of brain states while performing “mental noting”. If rt-fMRI analysis resulted in a Positive Diametric Activity (PDA) score (red shadowing) the central white dot of the feedback display moved in the upper direction and towards the red circle. The contrary was the case when a negative PDA score was triggered (blue shadowing). D) Post rt-fMRI resting state.


  • Okano, K., Bauer, C., Ghosh, S. S., Lee, Y. J., Melero, H., de Los Angeles, C., Nestor, P. G., Del Re, E. C., Northoff, G., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., & Niznikiewicz, M. A. (2020). Real-time fMRI feedback impacts brain activation, results in auditory hallucinations reduction: Part 1: Superior temporal gyrus -Preliminary evidence. Psychiatry research, 286, 112862. Advance online publication.
  • Bauer, C., Okano, K., Ghosh, S. S., Lee, Y. J., Melero, H., Angeles, C. L., Nestor, P. G., Del Re, E. C., Northoff, G., Niznikiewicz, M. A., & Whitfield-Gabrieli, S. (2020). Real-time fMRI neurofeedback reduces auditory hallucinations and modulates resting state connectivity of involved brain regions: Part 2: Default mode network -preliminary evidence. Psychiatry research, 284, 112770.